GEOCHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION AND THRESHOLD VALUES DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN STREAM WATER IN THE SUB-BASINS OF VERMELHO AND SORORÓ RIVERS, ITACAIÚNAS RIVER WATERSHED, EASTERN AMAZON, BRAZIL
Geochemical survey in the Vermelho (VSB) and Sororó (SSB) sub-basins of the Itacaiúnas basin in southeastern Amazonian region has shown that the physical-chemical parameters of stream water do not display accentuated variations between the rainy and dry seasons. Except for Fe and Mn, in general most metals show low contents in water and evidences of significant contamination were not observed. Higher contents were mostly registered during the rainy season. Fe is regularly distributed in water in the studied area and the increase of its concentration was favored by deforestation. Mn contents increase during the dry season possibly due to biogeochemical processes. High Fe and Mn contents in water are inherent to the specific local conditions prevalent in the Amazonian region. Geogenic influence in metal distribution in water is significant for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn. Anthropic effects are subordinate except for Fe and Mn or in local areas. The definition of threshold values for As, Co, Cr, and Pb, was limited, however, threshold values for Cu, Ni, Sn, V, and Zn were estimated for at least one season in each sub-basin. Threshold values of total iron were obtained (5 to 6 mg/L and 2 to 3 mg/L in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively). Estimated Mn threshold values are 0.30 to 0.45 mg/L in the rainy season and in the dry season they decrease to 0.20 to 0.30 mg/L in VSB and increase to 1.3 to 1.4 mg/L in SSB.
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